Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Critically analyze Brandom and Haugeland’s views regarding Cartesianism

The idea of Cartesianism is that each or potentially anything that can be questioned must be disposed of, and obviously defined once again so as to be solidified in honesty. Questioning is the primary method of deciding if something is valuable, and on the off chance that it isn’t, you dispose of what you know and fundamentally rehash it so that is helpful. We apply this Cartesianism in a social setting when we take a gander at society, governmental issues and the connections of individuals on any informative grounds.This would incorporate etymology, thinking and some other types of cooperation that structure any sort of foundation for social and cultural communication. Utilizing Cartesianism, we can draw differentiations between such things. We will take a gander at the thoughts of language, thinking and thinking, as far as crafted by two logicians, Robert Brandom and John Haugeland, with the accentuation on looking into their special perspectives. Brandom: Freedom, Norms, Re ason and ThoughtRobert Brandom’s sees on individual flexibility were established in the distinction between how he saw his precursors on the topic; he looked into Kant and Hegel in his work ‘Freedom and Constraint by Norms’. In this work, he fundamentally watches the establishment from which Kant and Hegel dissected the thoughts of individual flexibility, as communicated †or disproved †by standards. So as to set out these standards †opportunity and standards †we should initially characterize them. Brandom had this to state about Kant’s viewpoint:One of the most interesting reactions to the primary arrangement of concerns has been created by the Kantian convention: the regulation that opportunity comprises exactly in being obliged by standards as opposed to only by causes, offering an explanation to what should be just as what is. (1979, p. 187). We expect the reality here that standards are things which become set up after some time by society/network, and that they decide and choose how things ought to be done, by the individual and by the community.Where Kant even-mindedly contended that society utilized standards to decide the individual’s activities, Brandom additionally included how Hegel proposed an alternate methodology, from an alternate point: The focal component deciding the character of any vision of human opportunity is the record offered of positive (opportunity to) †those regards wherein our movement ought to be recognized from the negligible absence of outside causal imperative (opportunity from) †¦ (1979, p. 187). Brandom advances his contention by bringing his proposed arrangement into the space of the linguistic.He contends that the premise of standards, with respect to their utilization in directing society and the individual’s job in that, requires inventive articulation from people so as to advance the Hegelian idea of hopeful, ‘positive’ opportunity. Event ually, Brandom proposes a post-Hegelian arrangement, one which expands on Hegel’s beginning explanations and preferably helps the headway of people inside a mutual setting. In ‘A Social Route from Reasoning to Representing’, Brandom further investigates the by and large held rules that singular creatures are equipped for thinking and sensible idea processes.Because of this characteristic quality, encouraged in the childhood of every person, truth by surmising or deductive thinking turns into a foundation of the musings and activities of each person. The investigation of the contrast between really contemplating something is set up and spoken to by the acknowledged standard that people move in groups of friends, thus impact each other’s thoughts and ideas of reason. Shared conviction is found in these movements, or as Brandom qualifies, â€Å"the authentic measurement †¦ mirrors the social structure †¦ in the round of giving and requesting reason .† (2000, p. 183). Haugeland: Truth, Rules and Social Cartesianism John Haugeland approaches the thought behind the social foundations similarly as Brandom. He investigates a similar arrangement of subjects in his work ‘Truth and Rule-following’, where he makes reference to the possibility of standards as will undoubtedly rules and how the group of friends involved one of a kind people see such foundations. These guidelines are separated into verifiable and overseeing, with authentic being held as comprehended and maintained by all and administering as regulating; â€Å"how they should be† (Haugeland, 1998, p. 306).Haugeland likewise contends that these standards are maintained by a mutual movement to relate and make similitudes between people: similarity. He further suggests that social normativity can be grounded in organic normativity †similar standards and contentions can be applied, however just to the extent that people are fit for reason, and th at a natural body by differentiate follows certain foreordained, prearranged sets or rules, while a thinking psyche can essentially adjust around or develop conditions and work past them, as a natural preset cannot.This underpins overseeing standards being variable, separate from target truth. Additionally, accepted practices are established through the contribution of others, it might be said advancing a framework where one individual from the network determines the status of the others, and the other way around. Haugeland’s case is finished up with an insistent contention for the likeness and joining between standards of reason (administering standards) and target truth (real standards) coming down to being something very similar: both are in actuality alterable, if in various, emotional ways.With ‘Social Cartesianism’, Haugeland investigates crafted by three different rationalists, externalizing the purpose behind his presumptions dependent on the utilization of theory in language, which every one of the three works †crafted by Goodman, Quine and Wittgenstein/Kripke †investigate in some structure. The purpose behind this investigation is Cartesian in starting point. The principal work, by Goodman, is a contention dependent on characterizing predicates †acknowledged standards †and testing the restrictions of their agreeableness, in obvious, far fetched, Cartesian style.The work of Quine centers around the components of interpretation, of taking by and by acknowledged standards and setting them over a culture with contrasting standards, along these lines characterizing that culture as per our own specific manner of getting things done. In conclusion, the discussion wandered by Wittgenstein/Kripke is one of suspicion that suggests that all standards are social, not private: â€Å"In aggregate: on the off chance that implications must be regulating, however people can’t force standards on themselves, at that point private, singular implications are impossible† (Haugeland, p. 219).Haugeland extrapolates that every last one of these contentions is in a general sense defective, in view of the end he draws with respect to every one of the three works’ deficiencies: they all neglect to represent this present reality, the world that everybody lives in and is influenced by. Brandom versus Haugeland Perhaps the most clear similitude among Brandom and Haugeland’s singular records and thinking is the way that they approach similar sorts of themes: social circumstance, distinction, opportunity, language and thought.Despite different methodologies and held perspectives, both are constrained to a specific Cartesian method of getting things done, of disposing of everything or anything that isn't certain and reproducing these things once more by utilizing sound thinking. Brandom is enamored with referencing Kant and Hegel and putting them in resistance against one another, most outstand ingly in expressing their perspectives from need and extremity: Kant held the view that standards directed opportunity and singularity, while Hegel was increasingly positive in communicating his perspectives on opportunity eventually deciding norms.In a comparative design, Haugeland moved toward the subject of standards and normativity, and how they influenced people, both etymologically and mindfully. We will take a gander at the correlation of standards and normativity first, and afterward spread outward into semantics and thought. The perspective on normativity being an integral factor, most outstandingly on a phonetic premise, for speaking to the two polarities of standards and realities, is maintained by both philosophers.Brandom considers standards to be something which is initiated dependent on reason, on the possibility that they are something that is held by a common attitude and forced on the person. Realities thus are things which are acknowledged as a given by people as well as by the network. Concentrating on etymology, Brandom draws on interpretation, on the activity of putting or transposing one lot of acknowledged standards †from, state, one community’s perspective †onto another community’s perspective. Note here that Haugeland additionally referenced the possibility of interpretation in his study of Quine’s work.This represents the main genuine complexity among Brandom and Haugeland’s perspectives: Brandom represents the possibility that interpretation advances absorption: By deciphering, as opposed to causally clarifying some exhibition, we expand our locale (the one which participates in the social practices into which we decipher the stranger’s conduct) in order to incorporate the outsider, and treat his exhibitions as variations of our own. (1979, p. 191). The demonstration of making something your own, attracting a person or thing from outside your limits, discusses a move of norms.Logically it tends to be contended that acclimatizing something new powers your perspective about something to be modified to oblige what's going on, regardless of whether what has been assimilated turns into a portrayal of something totally new and unique. In this we see Brandom’s move to the Hegelian thought of the novel, the new, being made from a positive perspective so as to progress and improve the collective entirety. Haugeland differentiates by referencing Quine: â€Å"†¦ despite the fact that the interpretations are extraordinary, there is no reality with respect to which of them is the ‘right’ one, in light of the fact that there is no ‘objective issue to be correct or wrong about’.â€

Saturday, August 22, 2020

‘A Bridge to Wiseman’s Cove’ by James Moloney Essay

Carl Matt is a multi year old kid who has needed to manage some really out of line circumstances, however he is unquestionably by all account not the only one in the novel to confront groundbreaking occasions. While Carls life takes the most perceptible turn in the novel, a considerable lot of his individual characters lives additionally change after his appearance. On appearance in Wattle Beach, Carls venture drives him to the character, Skip Duncan. Skip has likewise been managed out of line life challenges. The way that Carl is a Matt makes numerous difficulties for Skip. Skips little girl, Maddie likewise changes during the time Carl spends in Wattle Beach. Numerous characters change all through the novel however Carl is unquestionably the most overwhelming. Carl Matt changes all through the novel. Carl Matt is only a timid, tragic character toward the start of the book. In the beginning Carl was a sucker he simply let individuals continue trampling him. For instance Carl sees Sarah (his sister) arranging an occasion for herself, But Carl realized that she wouldnt return, and he didn't utter a word. He simply left for Aunt Beryls and made himself believe that he was simply leaving for a vacation. When Carl arrives at Wattle Beach he feels like a pariah. He stood up too out of nowhere and the seat toppled over in reverse. Faces went to appreciate the satire as he corrected the seat, his skin blushed with wild embarrassment.(Quote pg28). This statement shows that Carl isn't a piece of a gathering; he is only another child that nobody knows or likes. In any case, following half a month a Wattle Beach Carl finds a new line of work, which causes him to feel as though he is required. Carl is continually developing in this book, to start with Carl wouldnt even fantasy about conversing with Maddie yet toward the finish of the novel Maddie is one of Carls closest companions. Carl becomes more friendly toward the end and shows Wattle Beach and Wisemans Cove occupants who he truly is My name is Carl Matt M-A-T-T (Quote pg 231). Be that as it may, Carl resistant isnt the one in particular who changes all through the novel. Carls manager Skip Duncan likewise changes and in a major manner. At the point when we are acquainted with Skip Duncan, we meet an inconsistent and abrupt man. To start with Skip Duncan loathes all Matts yet Carl Matt is the person who alters his perspective. Toward the beginning Carl approaches Skip for work yet when Skip discovers his last name Skip detonates Matt, the word detonated. Skirt turned againâ to Joy is this a joke? You bring a Matt onto my freight boat, let him come her approaching me for work! He was yelling when he arrived at the final word, anger swelling in his face. Get off my flatboat, he shouted at the kid. (Statement pg 66). Skip detonates at poor Car, when he doesn't have the foggiest idea what sort of an individual Carl is. This persuades Skip is very judgemental individual. Despite the fact that first and foremost Skip is very, judgemental he develops all through the term of the novel. By turning out to be not so much judgemental but rather more keen on meeting the individual not the last name He loosened up his arm, hand open and Carl took it, a freezing dangerous grasp enduring not so much as a second.(Quote pg 133), this handshake despite the fact that it might be short shows that Skip has defeated the way that Carl is a Matt and has acknowledged him for being CARL Matt. Thin, tanned, blonde, Maddie Duncan is the young lady that everybody needs to be or be with. In any case, alongside being pretty she additionally has a terrible disposition, however that changes all through the novel. At the point when we initially meet Maddie Duncan we meet a spoilt rascal. She has a terrible mentality and feels that everybody cherishes her. Be that as it may, Carl, Justine and Joy help to change her into an individual that individuals truly like. That is one favorable position Carl and I have over you said Justine Youre fortunate at that point was Maddies answer (Quote pg 150), this statement gives us that Maddie was spoilt and stroppy however after this little scene Joy converses with Maddie and her mentality changes. She was excessively vulnerable with chuckling and depletion to challenge him for the pizza now(Quote pg 181)This statement shows that she has changed into an individual that individuals truly like, she has jettisoned her demeanor and dumped the addit ional stuff (Nathan Trelfo). This implies she is a more liberated individual and is agreeable inside herself, which toward the start of the novel she wasnt. Maddie likewise figures out how to go to bat for herself, as she doesnt let Nathan push her around. Shows youre a superior appointed authority that me. Maddie chuckled He said some horrible stuff regarding your sibling and Aunt (quote pg 154). This shows Maddie is tired of Nathan and is prepared to dump him which she does later in the novel. Maddie Duncan is continually changing through the story, in some cases to improve things and now and then for the most noticeably terrible. In any case, the most significant thing is that her and the individuals around her are upbeat. Carl Matt encounters numerous life changing changes all through the novel. Anyway he isn't the one and only one. Skip Duncan develops from being judgemental to being understanding. Maddie creates from a spoilt imp to a caring companion. So despite the fact that Carl Matts life takes a huge turn in the story, Skip and his little girl Maddie likewise have adjustments made to their lives.

Wednesday, August 12, 2020

The Ultimate Exercises to Improve Posture (Simple and Effective)

The Ultimate Exercises to Improve Posture (Simple and Effective) How many times in your childhood did your mother yell at you to stand upright or stop slouching?Back then, it might have seemed like they were just being nagging, but in reality, our mothers were trying to prevent us from developing the habit of bad posture.Today, a lot of people suffer from problems related to poor posture, and the worst part is that many of them do not even realize that they have poor posture.How many times have you caught yourself slouching or hunching over your computer, looking down at your smartphone, cradling the phone between your head and shoulders, or sliding forward on your office seat?All these are examples of poor posture, yet we engage in many of them without even realizing it.Essentially, poor posture is any position where there is musculoskeletal distortion in the neck and back due to the spine being in unnatural positions for long periods of time.WHY YOU SHOULD STRIVE FOR PROPER POSTUREEven when we know that some of our habits lead to poor posture, m any of us do nothing to correct our posture.This is because we don’t know the negative impact of poor posture.Apart from making you look unattractive and self-doubting, poor posture also has several negative effects on your health and wellbeing. These include:Soreness and pain: Poor posture puts your body’s support system (your muscles and skeleton) in unnatural positions.This unnatural position causes misalignment of the spine, resulting in pain in the affected areas.Poor posture also misaligns your body’s natural weight distribution, which means that some of your muscles and bones have to bear more weight than they are supposed to.They have to work harder to support this extra weight, leading to pain and soreness in these areas.The areas that commonly experience pain and soreness include the lower back, the shoulders, the neck and the wrists.In extreme cases, poor posture can lead to problems such as a herniated disc and text neck.Increased risk of cardiovascular diseases: P oor posture, such as slouching, puts pressure on the ribcage and diaphragm, which can put more pressure on the heart.The misalignment of the spine can also result in constriction of blood vessels, resulting in poor circulation and conditions like deep vein thrombosis.If left untreated, these conditions greatly increase your risk of suffering from cardiovascular diseases.Poor breathing: Apart from putting more pressure on the heart, pressure on the ribcage and diaphragm also prevents your lungs from expanding properly as you breathe in.This in turns prevents your lungs from taking in as much oxygen as they should.Negative mood: You might think that there is no connection between your body posture and your mood, but studies show otherwise.According to a study conducted by researchers from the University of Auckland, poor posture is associated with lower self-esteem, more fear, worse moods and greater use of negative words.Increased stress: Poor posture has also been shown to lead to i ncreased physical and mental stress.Apart from the physical stress resulting from body pain and soreness, poor posture also increases the levels of cortisol (the stress hormone) in your body, leading to increased mental stress.A study by the San Francisco State University asked students to walk down a hallway either in a slouched position or by cross-crawl skipping.The group that walked in a slouched positions experienced decreased energy levels and higher feelings of depression.Carpal tunnel syndrome: The function and sensitivity of your arms, wrists and hands is controlled by the nerves stemming from your upper back and neck.Since poor posture largely affects these areas (the upper back and neck), it can result in pinching of these nerves, leading to carpal tunnel syndrome, which is a condition where someone experiences tightness, pain, tingling or numbness in the muscles throughout the arm.Tension headaches: This is another problem caused by poor posture that is commonly experien ced by office workers.Sitting all day in a poorly set up workstation â€" a monitor or desk that is too low or too high, computer accessories that are not ergonomically designed, a chair that does not provide adequate support, and so on â€" puts a lot of strain and tension on your neck and shoulders.Eventually, this tension works its way up your head, resulting in tension headaches.Decreased motivation: I mentioned that poor posture often makes you feel less confident in yourself. This in turn causes you to lose motivation in going after your goals and ambitions.Due to the appearance of self-doubt, others will also consider you as shy or timid, which will negatively affect you both in work-related and social situations.Poor digestion: Just like it squeezes up your rib cage and diaphragm, hunching over and slouching also bunches up the organs around your abdomen together.This leads to decreased ability to digest food, causing you to feel constipated. If left unaddressed for a long per iod of time, this can result in life-changing metabolic problems.Fatigue: Poor posture unnaturally shifts your body weight, which means that some of your muscles have to work much harder to keep you upright.This extra work is tiresome and requires more energy, therefore it leaves you feeling fatigued.EXERCISES TO IMPROVE YOUR POSTURETo avoid experiencing any of the negative effects discussed above, you need to actively work on correcting and improving your posture.Good posture ensures that all the bones, muscles, tendons and ligaments within your body are properly aligned in their correct position and that they are working optimally.Good posture also helps your body to develop proper strength, balance and flexibility.There is less strain on your body and you are less likely to experience any of the negative effects discussed above. In this section, we are going to look at some great exercises that can help you improve your posture.Most of these exercises are easy to perform and do n ot need any complicated equipment, which means that you can easily perform them within the privacy of your home and without the need to invest a lot of money in expensive equipment.The PlankA strong core is very important for developing good posture, and this simple exercise is one of the best ways to strengthen your core.The plank strengthens the several abdominal muscles, including the internal and external obliques, the rectus adbominis (the six pack muscles), as well as the erector spinae muscles on your back, the glutes, and the muscles on your shoulders.Below are the steps on how to correctly perform the plank: Start by lying face down on the floor, with your legs and feet together and your palms alongside your shoulders in pushup position.Raise yourself up onto your forearms, such that your elbow and the rest of your forearm is touching the ground. Your forearms should also be parallel to each other.Lift up your lower body and knees such that only your forearms and toes remai n touching the ground.Lock your abdominal and pelvic muscles to ensure that the middle part of your body does not sag. At this point, your legs, your spine, your shoulders, and your neck should be held straight, with your head facing downwards.Hold the position for a while as your breathe in through your nose and breathe out through your mouth. For starters, try to hold the position for about 30 seconds. You can gradually increase the length of time as your core becomes stronger.Back ExtensionsThis exercise helps you develop a strong back, which is also an important element for maintaining proper body posture.This exercise works the erector spinae muscles, the muscles of the lower back as well as the glutes.This exercise also improves the mobility and flexibility of the spine. Below are steps on how to properly perform back extensions. Start by lying face down on the floor, with your legs and feet together and your hands stretched outwards. Your feet should be outstretched, such tha t the tops of your feet are pressed against the floor.Using only your back muscles, slowly lift up your head and chest off the floor as you simultaneously lift up your feet off the floor. Don’t push down into your arms to lift up. At this point, only the middle section of your body (your stomach and hip bones) should be in contact with the floor. Hold the position for a few seconds and go back to the starting position.Repeat 10 â€" 15 times, increasing the number of reps as your back becomes stronger.If you find it to perform the exercise, start off with an easier variation of the exercise where you lift up your head, chest and arms off the floor while your feet remain in contact with the floor.You can later move on to the advanced variation as your back becomes stronger.Wall AngelsThis is another simple exercise that you can do from anywhere, even inside your office.This exercise is a great way to test your posture as well as to combat against rounded shoulders.The exercise stret ches out your shoulders and chest and helps strengthen a number of back muscles, including the trapezius, the rotator cuffs and the lats.All you need to perform this exercise is a roomy wall space.Follow the steps below to properly perform the wall angels. Start by standing with your back against the wall, with your heels a few inches from the base of the wall and your knees slightly bent.Make sure that your entire upper body â€" your head, shoulders and back â€" is touching the wall.Raise your arms with your elbows bent such that your lower arms are pointing upwards while your upper arms are parallel to the floor. The whole of your arms should also be leaning against the wall, with the palms facing outwards.Straighten your elbows to raise your arms above your head, such that they form a letter Y, with your head protruding from the center of the letter Y. As you raise your arms, make sure that they remain in contact with the wall.Hold the position for a few seconds and bring your ar ms back to the starting position, once again ensuring that contact with the wall is not lost.Repeat the arm movement 10 â€" 15 times.Chin TuckThe chin tuck is a great exercise for keeping your head aligned above the spine and reversing the poor, forward-head posture.It is also one of the best exercises for combating the neck pain that results from poor posture.The chin tuck exercise strengthens the upper thoracic extensor muscles, which are responsible for pulling the head back into alignment over the shoulders.This exercise also stretches the suboccipital and scalene muscles.The chin tuck exercise can be done in seated or standing position.Below are the steps on how to correctly perform the chin tuck exercise. Sit or stand upright with your shoulders rolled back and down. Make sure that your head is looking straight ahead and that your ears are directly above your shoulders.Place one finger on your chin.Without moving your finger, slightly tuck in your chin and pull your head strai ght backwards until you feel a good stretch at the top of your neck and the base of your head. At this point, there should be a gap between your chin and finger. The finger merely acts as reference for the starting point.Hold the position for a few seconds and go back to the starting position.Repeat the movement 10 â€" 15 times.You should perform about 5 to 7 sets (15 rep each) of the exercise throughout the course of the day.This not only strengthens your neck muscles, it also helps you create a habit of maintaining good head posture.The best part about this exercise is that it can be done anytime and anywhere â€" as you eat breakfast, lunch or supper, on the train, while waiting at a red light, in the office, basically anywhere.Kneeling Hip Flexor StretchThe kneeling hip flexor stretch is a great exercise for loosening the hip flexor muscles.These are a group of five muscles that connect to the pelvis and the femur.These muscles play a huge rule in our standing posture.Since the p elvis is the base of the spine, tight hip flexor muscles can lead to muscular imbalance in the lower back, leading to poor posture and sometimes lower back pain.Your hip flexor muscles usually become short and tight when you spend a lot of time in seated positions.Follow the steps below to correctly perform the kneeling hip flexor stretch. Kneel down with your left knee and stretch out your foot so that the top of your foot is against the floor. Place your right leg in front such that your thigh is parallel to the floor while your lower leg is perpendicular to the floor, with your knee bent at a 90 degree angle.Place your hands on your right knee, while ensuring that your back remains straight upright.Without getting your left knee off the floor, push your hips forward as your squeeze the muscles in your right buttock. Hold this position for about 30 seconds and go back to the starting position.Repeat the movement for about 10 â€" 15 times and then switch sides, placing your right k nee down and bringing your left leg up.Once you incorporate this exercise into your daily routine, you will notice that it becomes easier to stand or sit with a straight spine.Child’s PoseThis exercise is actually a resting pose borrowed from yoga.The child’s pose helps release tension in the muscles of your neck and lower back.This position also lengthens your spine and stretches your hamstrings and glutes.Follow the steps below to correctly perform the child’s pose. Start by kneeling down with your knees together and your big toes together. The upper part of your feet should be against the floor, with your heels pointing slightly outwards.Keeping your knees together and maintaining the position of your feet, sit down on your shin bones.Bend your body at your hips so that your face is almost touching the floor.Stretch your arms in front of you or bring them backwards such that your hands are next to your feet.Remain in this position for up to five minutes, while taking deep b reaths that expand your ribcage.Reverse Plank BridgeThis exercise is a variation of the plank, which we came across earlier.The reverse plank bridge is one of the most effective exercises for straightening your lower back and getting rid of rounded shoulders.The reverse plank bridge works on several muscle groups, including your erector spinae, the middle trapezius, the rhomboids, the front deltoids, the hip flexors, hip adductors, hip abductors and the lumbar spine.This exercise also works your neck extensors. All in all, it is one of the best exercises for improving body posture.Below are the steps for correctly performing the reverse plank bridge. Start by sitting down on the floor, with your legs in front of you. Place your hands behind you with your palms on the ground. You can have your fingers pointed backwards or forward.Press your palms and heels on the floor and lift your pelvis off the floor. Ensure that your knees, your pelvis and your shoulders are in line.Pull your sho ulders back such that the shoulder blades come together while pushing your chest up.Hold this position for 30 seconds. As your core and shoulders muscles become stronger, you can gradually increase the time.The Cat-Cow StretchThis is another exercise that is borrowed from yoga.The exercise consists of repeatedly moving the spine from flexion (a rounded position) to extension (an arched position).The cat-cow exercise is great for increasing abdominal strength and spinal flexibility.The movement of extending and flexing the spine also helps increase circulation in the discs of the spine.This exercise is great for preventing and reducing back pain. It is also a great exercise for those who spend a lot of time in sitting positions.Below are the steps on how to correctly perform the cat-cow stretch: Start by going down on your hands and knees. Your wrists, elbows and shoulders should be directly aligned below each other. Similarly, your knees should be directly below your hips. Your feet should be stretched out with the top of your feet against the floor. Spread out your fingers for better stability.Make sure that your spine is straight, with your shoulders and hips at the same level. Your head should be look down towards your fingers, such that your neck is also in line with your hips, spine and shoulders. This is the neutral position of the spine.Breathe in as you tilt your pelvis upwards and backwards such that your tailbone sticks up.Relax the abdominal muscles so that your belly moves towards the floor and at the same time arch your back downwards.Push your shoulders upwards and at the same time lift your head so that you end up gazing at the ceiling. Hold this position for a few seconds.Exhale as you now tilt your pelvis downwards and inwards, tucking in your tailbone.Follow by drawing your navel towards your spine and at the same time round your back upwards.Drop your head downwards as if you are trying to look at your navel. You want to end up with your ear s between your biceps.Hold this position for a few seconds and then go back to step 3 as you inhale.Repeat the cycle as you inhale and exhale about 5 â€" 10 times.Once you are done with your last repetition, go back to the neutral spine position and hold it for a few seconds.WRAPPING UPGood posture is very important for your health and wellbeing, and the eight exercises discussed in this article will help you improve your posture and reverse any negative effects you might be experiencing as a result of poor posture.It’s good to note that for you to achieve results using these exercises, you should make them a part of your routine.Poor posture is brought about by activities that are part of your daily routine, such as sitting all day at work and driving, therefore you should also perform these exercises every day.If you perform them for only a few weeks and stop, you will soon go back to where you started.Finally, I want to urge you to start performing these exercises today.The old er you get, the more pronounced the effects of poor posture become and the harder it is to reverse them, so don’t waste any time.Get started right away.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Dangers of Texting While Driving - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 952 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/04/12 Category Society Essay Level High school Topics: Texting and Driving Essay Did you like this example? Sometimes we make bad choices which can be dangerous to our lives or affect the people lives around us. Im sure there has been a time when you have been on your phone while on the road. It could be to respond to a message, answer a phone call or change a song. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Dangers of Texting While Driving" essay for you Create order 37% of car rides include some type of phone involvement. Your life can be gone in a matter of seconds. It only takes 3 seconds for a drivers attention to be off the road for a crash to occur. Texting and driving stories occur in the news or an article just about every day. Technology has become a huge part of our lives. Cell phone demand grows more everyday. The quickest way to communicate is through using our cell phones. We have easy access to social media, texting, video chats etc.. on our smartphones. People are so worried about being updated about whats on Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and texting back on time. Founder of the Center for Internet and Technology Addiction, David Greenfield, stated that one reason its so hard to stay away from electronic devices while driving is because of smartphones addictive nature(Teensafe 2018). Our brains instinctively respond to the alerts our phones send us that signal incoming messages or social media updates, making it harder to resist the urge to use your smartphone while driving (Teensafe 2018). The dangers of texting while driving leads to 1.6 million crashes each year. It is very dangerous but people still continue to do it everyday. Drivers ignore warnings and laws to stop using their phones while on the road. A big reason is that theyre simply not persuaded that nothing can happen to them. Many articles and stories have been shared with the world to help influence people to put their phones away while on the road. Approximately 660,000 drivers use their cell phones while driving during the day creating a large potential for crashes and fatalities (Teensafe 2018). Currently 47 states have passed a law that banned texting and driving. The purpose of having this law helps save lives but people still continue to do it. The interest for cell phones is developing each day. Anybody can purchase a cell phone at a reasonable cost. Many drivers still speak on phones and text while driving. Accordingly talking on the phone is just as dangerous as texting. Ages 16-19 years old are three times more likely to be involved in an accident than any other age group. 11 teenagers die everyday as a result of texting and driving. Studies show that teenagers are particularly at risk for texting while driving and car crashes. Teens text five times more than adults on average (Teen led 2012).When an accident occurs as a result in texting and driving and someone is killed or injured criminal charges can be pressed against the driver. Also another consequence is that the driver can be ticketed or fined especially if texting and driving is banned in the state. In the state of Pennsylvania texting and driving is banned. The penalty for this offense in a $50 fine with additional court costs and other fees. One day I hope texting and driving death rates can decrease. Many lives are lost over this distraction. It is heartbreaking that families lose their loved ones to texting and driving everyday. I read an article on ESPN called Mother Who Lost Son to Distracted Driving Urges Friends to Put Down Phones. A teenager named Gage Edwards passed away from a car accident. Gages mother bought him an Iphone for a christmas present. She thought it would be a good idea because Gage had a busy schedule with football, baseball and work. On January 31st Gage had a makeup game, after his game he went to work. When he got off of work he was scheduled to pick up his girlfriend. He was texting while driving. He drove off the road and ran into trees. Gage passed away 2 days later. This story about Gage breaks my heart. Its so sad that a young life was lost due to texting and driving. Phone companies have started to take action. Many phone companies have been dragged into lawsuits from customers blaming them for the accidents because its their product involved in the accident. There have been numerous reasons to stop texting while driving across the nation. One of them is ATTs It Can Pause battle, requesting that drivers promise not to drive occupied. An ATT contemplate uncovered that most phone clients cooperate with a normal of five individuals every day on their cell phone. 81% of individuals examined said they have stopped doing it as much or quit using their cell phone while driving (Teensafe 2018). Apple released an IOS update which has a new feature Do Not Disturb While Driving. This feature is an optional feature you can turn on in your phone. It is able to tell when your driving. When this feature is on while driving your messages and phone calls you receive will be put on disturb. Any notifications you receive you will not be alerted. Also this feature has a parent feature mood which parents are able to control their driving teenagers phones. Texting and driving is a big problem in society today causing American death rates to rise. Many teens and adults have developed a habit of using their phones while driving. It is one of the most dangerous things to do while on the road. We are all guilty of texting while driving at one point. It is not worth it. Your life is at risk and so are the peoples lives who are around you. This simple distraction is causing innocent lives to be taken everyday.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Commonly Confused Words Cite, Sight, and Site

The words cite, sight, and site are homophones: they sound the same but have different meanings. Definitions The verb cite means to acknowledge, mention, or quote as an authority or example. (Also see citation.) Cite also means  to officially order (someone) to appear in a court of law. In addition, cite means to recognize or praise someone, usually for a notable achievement.   The noun sight refers to the power or process of seeing or  to something that is seen. The noun site means a plot of land or a particular place or scene. Examples This style guide explains how to cite sources in a term paper.I complimented his organization on its unusually courteous and efficient service, and cited the saleswoman as an outstanding example of the stores high caliber.(Jerzy Kosinski, Cockpit, 1975)  Ã‚  When he spoke, I saw that his teeth were white and straight, and the sight of them suddenly made me understand that Grossbart actually did have parents—that once upon a time someone had taken little Sheldon to the dentist.(Philip Roth, Defender of the Faith.  Goodbye, Columbus, 1959)A group of teachers of foreign languages met in Nashville, Tennessee. The Opryland Hotel was the site of the conference.(Maya Angelou,  Hallelujah! The Welcome Table. Random House, 2007) Idiom Alerts The expression a sight for sore eyes is a way of saying that someone is attractive or that youre very pleased to see some person or thing.Mrs. Evans! you are certainly a sight for sore eyes! I dont know how you manage to look so unruffled and cool and young! With all those children.(Jo Britten in James Baldwins play Blues for Mister Charlie, 1964)The oxymoronic expression sight unseen means to accept or purchase something without first having had an opportunity to look at it.Ill tell you something really crazy. I just bought a house on Nob Hill--three and a half stories and forty rooms.  It takes up half a block on Sacramento and Clay, right behind Jim Floods mansion. I  bought it sight unseen.†(John Jakes, California Gold. Random House, 1989) Practice (a) Allanbank was finally demolished, but despite this Jeans ghost has subsequently been seen on the _____ of the house and along the driveway, much to the relief of the local people who have come to love her.(Allan Scott-Davies,  Shadows on the Water: The Haunted Canals and Waterways of Britain. The History Press, 2010)(b) Authors who work on the same subject tend to _____ the same research papers.(c) It was a disgusting _____, that bathroom. All the indecent secrets of our underwear were exposed; the grime, the rents and patches, the bits of string doing duty for buttons, the layers upon layers of fragmentary garments, some of them mere collections of holes held together by dirt.(George Orwell, The Spike. The Adelphi, April 1931) Answers to Practice Exercises:Cite, Sight, and Site (a) Allanbank was finally demolished, but despite this Jeans ghost has subsequently been seen on the  site  of the house and along the driveway, much to the relief of the local people who have come to love her.(Allan Scott-Davies,  Shadows on the Water: The Haunted Canals and Waterways of Britain. The History Press, 2010)(b) Authors who work on the same subject tend to  cite  the same research papers. (c) It was a disgusting  sight, that bathroom. All the indecent secrets of our underwear were exposed; the grime, the  rents  and patches, the bits of string doing duty for buttons, the layers upon layers of fragmentary garments, some of them mere collections of holes held together by dirt.(George Orwell, The Spike.  The Adelphi, April 1931)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cop Out Free Essays

White Water Rafting Site Recommendation Christopher Davis, Liquita James, and Susan Williams ACC/543 August 13, 2012 Linda Miller White Water Rafting Site Recommendation White water rafting is a new sport that has gained popularity in recent years. Because of this popularity the white water rafting business has expanded. Our client is interested in opening a white water rafting business. We will write a custom essay sample on Cop Out or any similar topic only for you Order Now The client has three states in which they are interested in Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia. The client has requested that the accounting firm research to see which location would be best for their new rafting business. Research must be done of the legal ramifications of real property, personal property, business insurance and environmental issues and regulations for each location in order to make the site recommendation. Real Property and Personal Property Real Property is the land itself and any building, trees, soil, minerals, timbers, plants, and other things permanently affixed to the land. Land and buildings are purchased and the owner may use, enjoy, and develop the property as he or she sees fit, subject to any applicable government regulation. Buildings that are constructed on the property are also real property. Personal property is tangible property such as equipment, vehicles, furniture, and jewelry, as well as intangible property such as securities, patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Determining if a mobile home can be used for the office on the new location is important to the client. Therefore we would need to know in each location if the mobile home is considered real property or personal property. In Toccoa Georgia real property can be purchased for around $150,000 for 2. 2 acres on the Toccoa River. Placing a mobile home on this land for the office would be considered real property in Georgia as long as the mobile home is titled to the same party that owns the land. The mobile home must be tied down and blocked in to be considered for commercial use. In Cahaba River City: Mountain Brook, Alabama the tax assessing official makes the differentiation between real property and personal property by considering the manner in which property is attached to or secured at the location and the purpose for which the property is used. Intangible personal property includes an owner’s representation of rights to property such as shares of stock, annuities, patents, market certificates, etc. Intangible personal property owned by businesses is not taxable under the property tax laws of this state. Business personal property is considered Class II property and is taxed at 20% of market value. Market value multiplied by twenty percent equals the assessment value, which is then multiplied by the appropriate jurisdiction’s millage rates to determine the amount of tax due. The State of Alabama publishes a personal property appraisal manual so that basic methods and procedures can be followed in the personal property appraisal process (â€Å"Personal Property†, 2012). Land in Birmingham, Alabama is roughly around 45,000 an acre. Rappahannock River in Fredericksburg Virginia is a combination of rural and urban life. The river is located off a major highway  leading north and south of the area. It’s it also located between  the capital Washington, D. C. and the capital of the state, Richmond. It’s a great area for relaxing and family with  a country feel. There are major tourist’s sites such as  war battlefields,  art galleries and antique shops. The mobile home issue as an office would be considered real property in Virginia. Once the home or office t is off the truck and secured on the ground it is considered real property. Lots run from $120,000 up to $700,000. 00 Business Insurance It is also important that we research what each site location business insurance requirements are. Business Insurance will protect our client and their property from damages and any unforeseeable circumstances. For Georgia the following insurances are required for a white water rafting business in Toccoa; vehicle insurance, floater policy, on water liability, and workmen’s compensation. Vehicle insurance for the buses, vans and cars, with low premium rates are based on the seasonal nature of your business, with limits up to $5,000,000, plus Physical Damage coverage; MVR and driver selection program assistance, prompt issuance of ID cards and Certificates. Floater Policy for your rafting and canoeing equipment policies provide physical damage protection for your river equipment – Fire, theft, vandalism, collision, and much more are covered; Low rates make this an important part of your insurance protection program; Office computers and equipment can be included. On Water Liability is professional liability insurance consulting for whitewater rafting, canoe livery industries and outdoor adventure companies. New, lower minimum premiums for the smaller outfitter, along with a liability waiver designed for you; Limits up to $5,000,000. . Finally Worker’s Compensation Offered in most states – Competitive rates. CBIZ offers professional liability insurance consulting for whitewater rafting, canoe livery industries and outdoor adventure companies. CBIZ is the Preferred Agent for the Paddle sports Industry Association. They offer liability coverage through four programs: KK, Tudor Insurance (Sattler), the AO endorsed Great Outdoors Program (Gillingham) and Philadelphia Insurance. Additionally, they offer commercial auto through four programs in most states. With full-service professional liability insurance consulting for whitewater rafting, canoe livery industries and outdoor adventure companies from CBIZ, you’re protected while your customers enjoy their outdoor activities: 1. Vehicle Insurance: Stable markets for buses, vans, cars, and trucks; Low premium rates are based on the seasonal nature of your business; Limits up to $5,000,000, plus Physical Damage coverage; MVR and driver selection program assistance, prompt issuance of ID cards and Certificates. 2. Floater Policy for your rafting and canoeing equipment: These policies provide physical damage protection for your river equipment – Fire, theft, vandalism, collision, and much more are covered; Low rates make this an important part of your insurance protection program; Office computers and equipment can be included. . On Water Liability: Get professional liability insurance consulting for whitewater rafting, canoe livery industries and outdoor adventure companies. New, lower minimum premiums for the smaller outfitter, along with a liability waiver designed for you; Limits up to $5,000,000. 4. You also need Worker’s Compensation (â€Å"Whitewater Rafting†, 2012). For Virginia liab ility insurance is required for rafting. Virginia requires that management must have at least three years management experience for acquire an insurance policy. There must be a General liability minimum premium $2,500 for mountaineering experience and ropes courses General liability minimum premium $10,000 for equine exposures – General liability minimum premium $2,000 for water activities. As with Alabama CBIZ offers the most affordable insurance for the area and offers the same vehicle, floater, water liability and workman’s comp insurance. Environmental Issues and Regulations Environmental issues and regulations are important when deciding upon a site for our clients business. These issues and regulations can cause a major problem for our client. At the Toccoa Georgia site the environmental issues that are of concern are that the rivers are being polluted by businesses in the area. â€Å" Polluters can dump garbage into streams, developers can pave over wetlands to build strip malls, and the cops on the environmental beat can’t do a thing about it† I n April, the Environmental Protection Agency took the first major step in decades to protect Georgia’s rivers by setting new guidelines to prevent pollution from flowing into our waters. â€Å"Protect Our Rivers†, 2012) Fourteen Alabama environmental groups have officially filed a petition with Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to withdraw Alabama’s authority over the water pollution-permitting program because it does not meet the minimum requirements of the Clean Water Act (â€Å"Clean Water Network†, 2012). There are no ongoing environmental issues or regulations for Rappahannock River in Fredericksburg Virginia. Site Recommendation The site recommended for our client is the Alabama site. The insurance requirement is about the same for all three states. Therefore we need to look at the real property and environment to make our decision. The mobile home issue is that it can be used for commercial use in all three of the locations. The mobile home would be considered real property because it will be attached to the location. Land in Alabama is cheaper so that makes it a better investment. Finally the environmental issues are about the same with those states having issues with polluted rivers. Alabama like other states is actively pursuing this issue. In conclusion, our client is trying to decide where would be the best location to open a new white water rafting business. First we found three ideal locations for the new business. Then after much research we looked at whether or not they could have a mobile home as an office and if this was real or personal property. Other issue that we looked into was the business insurance and environmental issues. This helped us to decide that the best location for our new white water rafting business was Cahaba River City: Mountain Brook, AL. References Clean Water Network (2012). Retrieved from http://www. cleanwaternetwork. org/news-events/news/clean-water-network-groups-call-epa-take-away-alabamas-authority-over-water-permitt Georgia. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. statues. Laws. com Georgia business license. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. ehow. com Personal Property (2012). Retrieved from http://www. ador. state. al. us/advalorem/sections/personalproperty. htm Protect our Rivers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www. environmentgeorgia. org Whitewater Rafting (2012). Retrieved from http://www. cbiz. com/page. asp? pid=6384 How to cite Cop Out, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Portfolio Management Overview of the Weekly Portfolio

Question: Describe about the Overview of the Weekly Portfolio for Portfolio Management. Answer: In week one, the topic of discussion is on the relevance of systems thinking to project, program and portfolio management (PPPM) which involves the systems engineering body of knowledge (SEBoK). Additional subtopics covered under this main topic included an introduction to systems engineering and its subsequent implementation such as the matrix application (Beringer, Jonas Georg Gemnden, 2012). I learned on the definition of a system and its basics, and what a project, system thinking, and portfolios are all about. A system refers to a mechanism in which something is done while systems thinking basically explains the principles and connections in the components of a system itself. On the other hand, a project is interrelated plans executable over a timely period and with fixed prices and limitations, while programs are instructions capable of performing tasks when expected by a computer. A portfolio in itself is a large flat case used for carrying loose paper sheets for example maps and drawings. System thinking has numerous advantages to the project, program and portfolio managements which include the identification and management of threats arising from dependence and relationships (Eilam, 2012). Additional merits include enhancing innovation through the exposure of fresh possibilities and giving room to questions and facilitating swift responses to fast changes. It also improves communication and alleviates the isolation of businesses while sensitizing on broader objectives and it also leads to better-designed products and services. Notably, it is important to not that I did not find the system thinking mechanism to have any disadvantages to project, program and portfolio management. Project based workflow capable of analysis includes conditional transition and data creation with the incorporation of desired flow cycles. In week two, the topic of discussion was the identification of different system thinking tools and techniques which serve in aiding managers of projects to solve problems. From my learning and experiences prior to this course and through thorough reading and doing assignments, I learned the tools and techniques of system thinking. Additionally, I learned on the system thinking tools and techniques, how they assist and inhibit project managers and a project workflow analysis based approach. Tools and techniques basically enhance and facilitate the swift and timely solving problems by project managers in relation to the management of a scheme. System thinking tools work through means of aiding in the generation and organization of information concerning a system which gives room for exploring and answering questions. The system thinking tools known are the conceptual model, graphical analysis, matrix ,influence, input-output, multiple causes,systems,sequence,spray and affinity diagrams, the decision matrix, functional failure mode analysis and the morphological box. System thinking, due to its potential, incorporates the aforementioned tools and techniques to assist project managers in the understanding of the operation of a scheme, behavior, and structures of systems. It also helps in the management and understanding of computer simulation models which assist in the testing of the impact of interventions and degree of project difficulties. Additionally, it helps in the communication of a project manager understanding with another and in the designing of high leverage interventions for systems behaviors that are problematic (Eilam, 2012). Inherently, these tools and techniques provide difficulties to managers as they are dynamic and are prone to change, plus understanding them fully and how they operate is a daunting task. A project-based workflow approach would be to prepare adequately for any eventuality before it strikes to assist in the effective handling of problems. In week three, our main topic of discussion is the assessment of the relevance of systems engineering to project cases, and through my learning systems, I undertook to understand the nature of systems engineering. Furthermore, I took to understand the importance of systems engineering to an organization and the relevant people in a company who would apply this technology and its relevance to the management of a project. In addition to its relevance to project management, I also understood its importance to portfolio administration, its relevance to project cases and the appropriate workflow. Systems engineering is used in the enhancement of a successful system and it focuses solely on needs of customers, synthesis of the design and subsequent validation. It is importance to an organization includes better products to customers, improved reliability on its use, reduced errors in delivery and production, reduced changes in design and lead time and low claims of warranty. Additionally, it helps in making improved decisions and managing risks, improving learning in an organization, and its mainly employed by director and manufacturing sections in the company. Notably, systems engineering is fundamental to the management of a project and portfolio as it is used by managers through the project management plan (PMP) to enhance their skills in management and technical abilities. The standard project based work plan in system engineering involves the planning and control of technical projects and engineering specialty integration. In week four, the main topic of discussion is on the concepts and methodologies of systems engineering and how they assist project managers to organize their schemes. In so doing, I took to understand through my learning experience and readings, the application of systems approach to a project and how it helps a project manager identify problems and opportunities. Additionally, I read on the use of systems approach in solving problems and identifying opportunities, and the making of better decisions by project managers and workers in an organization. The core concepts of system engineering are requirements which state on what the system must do, followed by the design and test the usability of a project (Wasson, 2015). Other principles include the context of a system, its value and interdisciplinary which is founded on the philosophies the systems design considers. The methodologies, on the other hand, include software engineering, quality assurance processes, and systems engineering which are integrated into a controllable and predictable lifestyle. A systems approach helps project managers to define and develop benefits as it dictates what happens in order to maximize benefits and looking at the general plan for benefits development. Additionally, it helps project managers scrutinize benefits during execution, and ensure there are successful completion and review of the benefits. A systems approach is used by project managers in solving problems through the recognition and definition of a problem using system thinking, developing and evaluating alternative system solutions. Additionally, designing and selecting of a system solution that meets the requirements of a project manager and further execution of success helps in the solving of problems. In week five, our topic of discussion is the analysis of the importance of appropriate selection of project management application systems in view to the realization of a scheme (Willcocks, 2013). I took to understand the importance of appropriate selection of projects and the manner in which they help project managers in solving problems and making crucial decisions. Additionally, through reading and doing assignments in previous courses, I understood the foundations on the selection of PMIs and the opinions and promotions of software vendors. The selection of a good project system depends on a majority of factors that determine its usability and effective realization of a scheme and proper problem solving. These factors include its intuitive and collaborative nature, simplicity in showing data, reliability on updates, and capability of managing an entire lifecycle of a project, integration ability, and scalability. The opinions of the vendors and software developers are improvising operational database management and support systems, enabling good network access control and global services. Project managers solve problems through the proper identification of methodologies and necessary techniques that help in handling issues related to the project management. In week six, the topic for discussion is the description of a project, program and portfolio management (PPPM) application that leads to better knowledge and decision making. Through learning experiences, I analyzed the problems and hindrances to the realization of a program and what the application systems need to do in order to achieve this goal. PPPM entails making decisions and doing the right things at the appropriate moments, with its foundation based on elective delivery in time and in the scope of the finance. Therefore every portfolio, program, and project management aim at giving an organization a competitive edge over the others in the market structure and as such is focused on the realization of the results of a business and better performances. The common challenges that hinder the realization of PPPM includes: Initiatives that aim at achieving the same objectives and to some extent are overlapping Some initiatives have absolutely no connection to the plans of a business The satisfaction of strategic objectives with no projects put in place to facilitate this Some initiative only has unsubstantiated and excessively optimistic benefits and costs estimations The recommended steps to follow in order for projects to realize their goals and achieve their desired outcomes include the creation of a strategy that is relevant to the objectives of an organization. Additionally, the initiatives ought to have connections to the plans of a project and satisfy objectives of a project with proper mechanisms in place and the benefits of a business and associated costs are to be of substantiated value. In week 7, the topic of the discussion focuses on the comparisons of the merits and demerits of different manual and electronic PPPM application systems over the life cycle of a project. Through reading, I understand the lifecycle of a project, its purpose to the project management and work systems, to the sponsoring organization and to programs and portfolios. Additionally, I learned on the advantages and disadvantages of manual PPPM systems and electronic systems, and the interfaces central to the corporate systems with relevance to portfolios. The life cycle of a project is basically in five phases that involve project initiation, planning, execution, management and control and closure. Initiation of the Project This is the first stage of the lifecycle of a project and involves two main distinct functionalities, which are the pre-initiation of a project and the initiation itself. In this phase, the value and feasibility of the project are measured through two evaluation tools used by project managers in deciding the continuity of a project or the stoppage. These evaluation tools are the feasibility study which entails looking at the goals of the project and determining its execution, and the business case document which includes the benefits accrued financially and the necessity of the project. Planning of the Project After the determination of execution ability of a project is successful, a plan is generated to guide the team, keeping them on budget and within the timeframe. Therefore, a properly articulated plan offers insight to the team on the means for acquiring resources, finances and materials, and preparing them on the pending hurdles they are yet to face. Execution of the Project It involves ensuring the satisfaction of customers is guaranteed and delivered and it is the main stage associated with the management of a project as its success heavily depends on planning. Monitoring and Control of the Project This phase is usually in connection with the execution of a project as both occur concurrently, since there is no execution without control and monitoring by a team. Closure of the Project This is the final phase of the lifecycle of a project and it is only done when teams have accomplished the project to the customer and communicated to the stakeholders. It allows the team to evaluate the project, document it and try the next one, while banking on the strengths and weaknesses to establish a more effective and reliable scheme. It is important to note that the life cycle of project changes when it is between an operator and project-based organizations (PBOs) and not depending on the type of scheme. This is demonstrated by the fact that PBOs are is able to adapt to emerging trends in production and respond swiftly to the changing needs of clients, and its ability to integrate a variety of skills and knowledge in handling risks in projects. The need for the lifecycle of projects has been witnessed in the scheme management and work system, stakeholders, other programs, and portfolios. The importance of lifecycles is the assured of all work being included in the initiation stages, defining the work needed by the project and ensuring there is planning before implementation of a scheme. Additionally, the use of templates that are standard ensures comfortability to everyone in an organization on the deliverables of the project, hence resulting in faster solutions. Generally, there are two types of PPPMSs which are the manual and electric. Manual PPPMs help in good decision-making practices, minimizing the risks to private projects, ensuring the full exploitation of human resources and proving value to essential stakeholders in good terms. However, its disadvantages manifest in the form of the speed of record making which is relatively lower and time-consuming than electronic PPPMs. Additionally, the accuracy and reliability of the record by manual PPPMs is one that attracts high doubts when it reaches a level of consideration of project planning. The disadvantages associated with electronic PPPMs include the difficulty in integrating many toolsets with variable databases and the lack of success in the full control of the development of a product. Its advantages include the high rate of recording and the reliability and accuracy of the records taken, with an improved recalling ability. Additionally, it facilitates efficient sharing with people within the same project at the program and profile levels, hence the need for minimal or no modification at all to the electronic PPPMs as people embrace them already. The knowledge areas needing systems that deliver real-time data are those of risks and change management as they are of utmost importance in the implementation of project planning. Therefore, these systems enhance the efficiency in the operations and effectivity of a project, and the portfolios interface should be synchronous to enhance effective communication. In week 8, the main topic of discussion is in the identification of how project management application systems have aided managers in monitoring performances and managing changes within the scheme (Heizer, Render Munson, 2016). I reflected on the project management application systems, management of change and the meaning of monitoring performance. What are project management application systems? What are their advantages and disadvantages? These are some of the questions I would deliberate upon in this topic. The project application systems are those which are used in the successful running of a scheme and its disadvantages include lack of transparency and unreliability. This topic is relevant to the management of a project through monitoring its performance and making the necessary changes to ensure effectivity. Monitoring the performance of a project is a mechanism that helps in the provision of early indications of coordination problems, possible overturn of costs and resource conflicts (De Marco Narbaev, 2013). Change management is a concept that dictates our preparation, and support towards other people to ensure they successfully adopt changes for their organizational outcomes and success (Hayes, 2014). Therefore monitoring of performance and change management augment each other since through performance assessment, the transformation in governance and leadership is effectively adopted. The management of change does not change with different inventions and creations but rather adopts the incoming strategies to improve the old ones. The success of change in a project is measured by the rate of success and its effect on the people and when there is no change, there is less likelihood of success and sufficient evaluation. Additionally, changes to the project are fundamental unlike those to the program and portfolio as it forms the main topic of our discussion in this terms course, and there is no delay in the monitoring of performance. For BP Texas City and Deepwater horizon oils spill that killed eleven workers, appropriate would be to stop and capture leaking oil, saving wildlife, and response to needs of human (Mendelssohn, Andersen, Caffey, Carman Rozas,2012). For a CQU group assignment, a portfolio would be appropriate and for infrastructure and resources PPPMs, their availability and effective control is appropriate. Notably, the distribution of a project virtually, and internationally makes a difference as their scope of operations widen, increasing the chances of success. In week 9, the topic of discussion is on proposing an appropriate project management application systems to support project execution in infrastructure and resource industries (Kerzner, 2013). Through studying and doing assignments, I understood the differences between identity and proposal, the meaning of appropriate, necessities on executing a project and the effect of adoption. Identity means the similarity in issues, appropriate is the suitability of the project while proposal refers to a plan put forward for discussion by individuals. The following elements are indispensable in the execution of a program: The identification of project milestones The breaking down of the milestones into tasks The purchasing of equipment necessary for achieving the targets Allocation of tasks to teams with regards to their area of expertise Tracking the progress of each and every member and monitoring all expenditure Communicating of the progress to all stakeholders The adoption of a system engineering body of knowledge (SEBoK) enhances changes to the dimensional approach of project management as it promotes practice in engineering, education, and research (Bourque Fairley, 2014). In week 10, the topic of discussion is on contemporary developments in the use of project application systems which analyses the inventions in the modern times (Cummings Worley, 2014). I will deliberate on the eight recent innovations that I found appealing to the modern industry and project managers which include: The project management maturity model(PMMM) Methodologies on project management Continuous improvement Development of an effective procedural documentation Capacity planning Competency tools Managing numerous projects End of phase reviews meetings All the above stated modern inventions seek to facilitate the realization of a successful project formation to execution. References Beringer, C., Jonas, D., Georg Gemnden, H. (2012). Establishing project portfolio management: An exploratory analysis of the influence of internal stakeholders' interactions.Project Management Journal,43(6), 16-32. Bourque, P., Fairley, R. E. (2014).Guide to the software engineering body of knowledge (SWEBOK (R)): Version 3.0. IEEE Computer Society Press. Cummings, T. G., Worley, C. G. (2014).Organization development and change. Cengage learning. De Marco, A., Narbaev, T. (2013). Earned value-based performance monitoring of facility construction projects.Journal of facilities Management, 11(1), 69-80. Eilam, B. (2012). System thinking and feeding relations: Learning with a live ecosystem model.Instructional Science,40(2), 213-239. Hayes, J. (2014).The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan. Heizer, J., Render, B., Munson, C. (2016).Principles of operations management: sustainability and supply chain management. Pearson Higher Ed. Kerzner, H. R. (2013).Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley Sons. Mendelssohn, I. A., Andersen, G. L., Baltz, D. M., Caffey, R. H., Carman, K. R., Fleeger, J. W. ... Rozas, L. P. (2012). Oil impacts on coastal wetlands: implications for the Mississippi River Delta ecosystem after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.Bioscience,62(6), 562-574. Wasson, C. S. (2015).System Engineering Analysis, Design, and Development: Concepts, Principles, and Practices. John Wiley Sons. Willcocks, L. (2013).Information management: the evaluation of information systems investments. Springer.